There is no world without Verona walls,
Those ancient walls of which Shakespeare spoke still guard some of Verona’s best-kept treasures. Amongst the gems it conceals, the Raggio di Sole, a green oasis of trees, discreetly located high on the wall's ramparts. So discreet, in fact, that it has taken me nearly 4 years to discover, and then only quite by chance.
While the city’s suburban parks are often mysteriously devoid of children, here there is no shortage of keen youngster, eager to join in an impromptu game of football. With a bar, pizzeria, animal enclosure and roller-skating rink, it’s the perfect place to come on a bright sunny spring morning. The steady rumble of traffic from the nearby ring-road, is the only reminder that you are still in the heart of the city.
Not far from Parco Raggio di Sole, another of the wall’s hidden treasures lies waiting to be discovered.
The Parco Divisione Acqui, which commemorates the terrible events that took place in Cephalonia in September 1943.
Those who have read Captain Correlli’s Mandolin (a literary masterpiece) or seen the film (a Hollywood travesty) will have some understanding of the tragic events that this magnificent monument commemorates. It is one of Verona’s most striking public works of art, a masterpiece of modern sculpture, let down only by the rather ugly concrete plinth upon which it stands and the badly translated information plaque nearby.
The sculpture was created by the renowned artist, poet and partisan Mario Salazzari. He was tortured and imprisoned by the Nazis, but esacaped a few days before the arrival of the Allied army. Visitors to Verona will be more familiar with Salazzari’s other great work, the Monumento al Partigiano, which gazes heroically over Piazza Bra.
On 28 October 1940 the Italian dictator, “in his customary cold blooded way” and “without the slightest provocation”, launched an attack on the “small but famous and immortal Greek nation” [Churchill's words]. The Greeks repelled the initial attack and the counter-attack that followed in March 1941. But in April, the faltering Italian invasion was bolstered by arrival of the Germans. The Greek army was unable to defend itself against this combined Italian and German onslaught and on 27 April 1940 Athens fell.
Military forces from Germany, Italy and Bulgaria divide and occupy Greece.
The Italian Acqui Division (11,500 soldiers and 525 officers commanded by 52-year-old General Antonio Gandin, an Iron Cross clad veteran of the Russian Front) is given the task of occupying the island of Cephalonia. There follows a period of fascist occupation during which the civilian population suffers terrible hardship, with many dyeing from privation and hunger. It is this occupation which provides the historical backdrop to the story of Captain Correlli's Mandolin.
In September 1943, when Italy surrenders to the Allies, General Gandin faces a serious dilemma: surrender to the Germans or resist. In the absence of specific orders from his superiors, he begins negotiations with his German counterpart, Colonel Johannes Barge. The two men respect each other and conclude their discussions hopeful that the desperate situation can be resolved peacefully.
However, things soon deteriorate and, on 11 September, Barge gives Gandin three choices:
1. Continue fighting on the German side
2. Fight against the Germans
3. Hand over arms peacefully
On 13 September, in an unlikely display of democratic warfare, Gandin presents his troops with a poll:
1. Join the Germans
2. Surrender and be repatriated
3. Resist the Germans
The Italian troops favour the third option and Gandin subsequently demands that the Germans leave the island.
As the negotiations stall, the Germans prepare to resolve the issue by force. On the morning of 15 September, the Luftwaffe begins bombarding the Italian positions. Despite some help from the local population, the conscripts of the Acqui Division are no match for the battle hardened German military machine. The massacre starts on 21 September and lasts for a week. On 22 September 1943, after several days of combat, out of ammunition and with 1,315 casualties, the last Italians surrender. German orders are to take no prisoners. The surrendering Italians are machine gunned where they stand.
Padre Romualdo Formato, one of Acqui's seven chaplains and one of the few survivors of the massacre, looked on as Italian officers wept, prayed and sang. At the moment of execution, many shouted the names of their mothers, wives and children. Alfred Richter, an Austrian, and one of the participants in the massacre, later told how an Italian soldier who sang arias for the Germans in the local taverns was forced to sing while his comrades were being executed.
In all, 5,000 Italian soldiers were massacred. Three thousand survivors subsequently perished at sea as they were being shipped to German concentration camps. The Acqui Division was wiped out.
Padre Formato survived the massacre and died in 1961. According to his nephew, he never recovered from the wounds he suffered on Cephalonia.
General Lanz, commander of the XXII Mountain Corps, is the only person to have served a prison sentence for the massacre of Cephalonia. He was released in 1951 and died in 1982. Lt Colonel Barge was not on the island when the massacre took place. He was subsequently decorated with the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for his service in Crete. He died in 2000.
Verona is today the national headquarters of the Acqui Division, which represents the survivors of the massacre of Cephalonia and Corfu. In a solemn ceremony held every year on 18th September veterans gather at the monument on Verona's famous walls to remember the victims of the massacre.
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